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For information on our Title 1 program, click here

Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtII) Defined

RtII is a school wide approach utilized to assist schools in meeting the requirements of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) legislations. RtII begins with a screening process of all students to see if they are performing on grade level with the core curricula. Universal screening measures are given and analyzed to measure levels and rates of learning, and then instructional decisions are made at team meetings. Interventions are put in place and student progress is monitored for growth. The core curricula, as well as the subsequent interventions, are research-based and/or research-validated. Additional decisions are made relative to student progress. 

In addition to addressing academic concerns, RtII includes a separate behavioral component that provides team decisions that may involve designing strategies and putting behavior plans in place as needed.

The RtII process is designed to be delivered within the general education program while coordinating services of special education, Title I, and ESL. A three-tiered framework triangle is used to depict both the academic and behavioral models.  Through working within the general education program, it is hoped that needs can be met early and with success, and that fewer referrals for special education will occur.

To help determine instructional needs and levels, the RtII process begins with universal screenings of all students. Our screening instruments include Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) reading results, Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) fluency results, 4Sight reading results, Harcourt Curriculum Based Assessment results, and Holistic Reading results 

The Data Analysis Team (DAT) conveys results and trends to grade level teams. Group decisions determine which intervention should best meet the needs of the student. Students participate in the assigned program 3-6 days per cycle (40 minutes per day) during the Intervention Block. The programs utilized are research based and/or research validated. Progress is monitored and discussed during team meetings. Additional decisions are made based upon progress monitoring and subsequent universal screening results.

Parents are an integral component of the RtII process. Parents will be informed of intervention placements and encouraged to be actively involved throughout the process. A Parent Guide on Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtII) in Pennsylvania can be found at


Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtII): Pyramid of Interventions

Click here to view a pyramid diagram illustrating the process of RtII, with services beginning in the bottom tier of the pyramid.

  • Tier 1:  systematic classroom instruction that is small group/flexible group and short-term in nature
  • Tier 2:  small group interventions using research based and/or research validated supplemental materials
  • Tier 3:  specially designed instruction to address the child’s needs
Governor Mifflin Intermediate School MR. LEE UMBERGER, principal
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